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Moffat SD, Zonderman AB, Metter EJ, et al. Free testosterone and risk for Alzheimer disease in older men. Neurology. 2004 Jan 27;62(2):188-193.

 

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Malkin CJ, Pugh PJ, Jones RD, et al. The effect of testosterone replacement on endogenous inflammatory cytokines and lipid profiles in hypogonadal men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Jul;89(7):3313-3318.

 

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Hodis HN, Mack WJ. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and cardiovascular disease in perspective. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Sep;51(3):564-580.

 

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Dobnig H, Pilz S, Scharnagl H, et al. Independent association of low serum 25- hydroxyvitamin d and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin d levels with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Arch Intern Med. 2008 Jun 23;168(12):1340-9.

Review of Different BHRT

 

Cirigliano M. Bioidentical hormone therapy: a review of the evidence. J Womens Health. 2007 Jun;16(5):600-631.

 

Lemon HM. Pathophysiologic considerations in the treatment of menopausal patients with oestrogens; the role of oestriol in the prevention of mammary carcinoma. Acta Endocrinol Suppl. 1980;233:17-27.

 

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Takahashi K, Okada M, Ozaki T, et al. Safety and efficacy of oestriol for symptoms of natural or surgically induced menopause. Hum Reprod. 2000 May;15(5):1028-1036.

 

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Karim R, Mack WJ, Lobo RA, et al. Determinants of the effect of estrogen on the progression of subclinical atherosclerosis: Estrogen in the Prevention of Atherosclerosis Trial. Menopause. 2005 Jul-Aug;12(4):366-73.

 

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Vooijs GP, Geurts TB. Review of the endometrial safety during intravaginal treatment with estriol. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 1995 Sep;62(1):101-106.

 

Nachtigall LE. Bioidentical versus nonbioidentical hormones. Proceedings from the postgraduate course presented prior to the 17th annual meeting of the North American Menopause Society. 2006 October 11;15-19.

 

Hormones & Cancer

 

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Devi GR, Sprenger CC, Plymate SR, Rosenfeld RG. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 induces early apoptosis in malignant prostate cancer cells and inhibits tumor formation in vivo. Prostate. 2002 May 1;51(2):141-52.

 

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Carter HB, Pearson JD, Metter EJ, et al. Longitudinal evaluation of serum androgen levels in men with and without prostate cancer. Prostate. 1995 Jul;27(1):25-31.

Chen C, Lewis SK, Voigt L, et al. Prostate carcinoma incidence in relation to prediagnostic circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor I, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3, and insulin. Cancer. 2005 Jan 1;103(1):76-84.

 

Rhoden EL, Morgentaler A. Medical Progress: Risks of Testosterone-Replacement Therapy and Recommendations for Monitoring. N Engl J Med. 2004 Jan; 350:482- 492.

 

Morgentaler A, Rhoden EL. Prevalence of prostate cancer among hypogonadal men with prostate-specific antigen levels of 4.0 ng/mL or less. Urology. 2006 Dec;68(6):1263-7.

 

Scherr DS, Pitts WR Jr. The nonsteroidal effects of diethylstilbestrol: the rationale for androgen deprivation therapy without estrogen deprivation in the treatment of prostate cancer. J Urol. 2003 Nov;170(5):1703-8.

 

Eaton NE, Reeves GK, Appleby PN, Key TJ. Endogenous sex hormones and prostate cancer: a quantitative review of prospective studies. Br J Cancer. 1999 Jun;80(7):930-4.

 

Shabsigh R, Crawford ED, Nehra A, Slawin KM. Testosterone therapy in hypogonadal men and potential prostate cancer risk: a systematic review. Int J Impot Res. 2009 Jan-Feb;21(1):9-23.

 

Savage L, Widener A. Sex Hormones Unrelated to Prostate Cancer Risk. JNCI. 2008;100(3):157.

 

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Heikkilä R, Aho K, Heliövaara M, et al. Serum testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin concentrations and the risk of prostate carcinoma: a longitudinal study. Cancer. 1999 Jul 15;86(2):312-5.

 

Jancin B. HRT Safe for Survivors of Early-Stage Breast Ca. Family Practice News. 2001 Jun 1.

 

Goldman EL. ERT shows no risk in breast cancer survivors. (unable to find full reference)

 

Johnson K. ERT Does Not Increase Breast Cancer Recurrence or Mortality. Family Practice News. 1999 May 15.

 

Campagnoli C, Clavel-Chapelon F, Kaaks R, et al. Progestins and progesterone in hormone replacement therapy and the risk of breast cancer. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2005 Jul;96(2):95-108.

 

Lea R, Bannister E, Case A, Levesque P, et al. Use of hormonal replacement therapy after treatment of breast cancer. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2004 Jan;26(1):49-60.

 

Decker DA, Pettinga JE, VanderVelde N, et al. Estrogen replacement therapy in breast cancer survivors: a matched-controlled series. Menopause. 2003 Jul- Aug;10(4):277-85.

Suriano KA, McHale M, McLaren CE, et al. Estrogen replacement therapy in endometrial cancer patients: a matched control study. Obstet Gynecol. 2001 Apr;97(4):555-60.

 

Schairer C, Lubin J, Troisi R, et al. Menopausal estrogen and estrogen-progestin replacement therapy and breast cancer risk. JAMA. 2000 Jan 26;283(4):485-91.

Jancin B. Adding progestin to estrogen multiplies breast cancer risk. Family Practice News. 2001 Mar 15.

 

Walling AD. Does HRT Increase the Risk of Breast Cancer? Am Fam Physician. 2002 Mar 1;65(5):947.

 

Durna EM, Wren BG, Heller GZ, et al. Hormone replacement therapy after a diagnosis of breast cancer: cancer recurrence and mortality. Med J Aust. 2002 Oct 7;177(7):347-51.

 

O'Meara ES, Rossing MA, Daling JR, et al. Hormone replacement therapy after a diagnosis of breast cancer in relation to recurrence and mortality. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2001 May 16;93(10):754-62.

 

Bergkvist L, Adami HO, Persson I, et al. The risk of breast cancer after estrogen and estrogen-progestin replacement. N Engl J Med. 1989 Aug 3;321(5):293-7.

 

Stefanick ML, Anderson GL, Margolis KL, et al. Effects of conjugated equine estrogens on breast cancer and mammography screening in postmenopausal women with hysterectomy. JAMA. 2006 Apr 12;295(14):1647-57.

 

James-Enger K. Cancer prevention breakthrough. Redbook. 2001 Mar;196(3):132.

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Levgur M. Hormone therapy for women after breast cancer. J of Reprod Med. 2004 Jul;49(7):510-26.

 

Natrajan PK, Gambrell RD. Estrogen replacement therapy in patients with early breast cancer. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2002 Aug;187(2):289-94.

 

Campagnoli C, Abba C, Amgroggio S, Peris C. Pregnancy, progesterone and progestins in relation to breast cancer risk. J of Steroid Biochem & Molecular Biol. 2005;97:441-450.

 

O'Meara ES, Rossing MA, Daling JR, et al. Hormone replacement therapy after a diagnosis of breast cancer in relation to recurrence and mortality. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2001 May 16;93(10):754-62.

 

Meurer LN, Lená S. Cancer recurrence and mortality in women using hormone replacement therapy: meta-analysis. J Fam Pract. 2002 Dec;51(12):1056-62.

 

Dimitrakakis C, Jones RA, Liu A, Bondy CA. Breast cancer incidence in postmenopausal women using testosterone in addition to usual hormone therapy. Menopause. 2004 Sep-Oct;11(5):531-5.

 

Dew JE, Wren BG, Eden JA. Tamoxifen, hormone receptors and hormone replacement therapy in women previously treated for breast cancer: a cohort study. Climacteric. 2002 Jun;5(2):151-5.

 

Decker DA, Pettinga JE, VanderVelde N, et al. Estrogen replacement therapy in breast cancer survivors: a matched-controlled series. Menopause. 2003 Jul- Aug;10(4):277-85.

 

Guidozzi F. Estrogen replacement therapy in breast cancer survivors. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1999 Jan;64(1):59-63.

 

Peters GN, Fodera T, Sabol J, et al. Estrogen replacement therapy after breast cancer: a 12-year follow-up. Ann Surg Oncol. 2001 Dec;8(10):828-32.

 

Vassilopoulou-Sellin R, Cohen DS, et al. Estrogen replacement therapy for menopausal women with a history of breast carcinoma: results of a 5-year, prospective study. Cancer. 2002 Nov 1;95(9):1817-26.

 

Vassilopoulou-Sellin R, Asmar L, Hortobagyi GN, et al. Estrogen replacement therapy after localized breast cancer: clinical outcome of 319 women followed prospectively. J Clin Oncol. 1999 May;17(5):1482-7.

 

Durna EM, Wren BG, Heller GZ, et al. Hormone replacement therapy after a diagnosis of breast cancer: cancer recurrence and mortality. Med J Aust. 2002 Oct 7;177(7):347-51.

 

Natrajan PK, Soumakis K, Gambrell RD Jr. Estrogen replacement therapy in women with previous breast cancer. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1999 Aug;181(2):288-95.

 

Guidozzi F. Announcing the winner of the IJGO prize paper award for 1999. Estrogen replacement therapy in breast cancer survivors. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2000 May;69(2):101-2.

 

Eisen A, Lubinski J, Gronwald J, et al. Hormone therapy and the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008 Oct 1;100(19):1361-7.

 

Chen WY, Manson JE, Hankinson SE, et al. Unopposed estrogen therapy and the risk of invasive breast cancer. Arch Intern Med. 2006 May 8;166(9):1027-32.

 

Rock CL, Flatt SW, Laughlin GA, et al. Reproductive steroid hormones and recurrence-free survival in women with a history of breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008 Mar;17(3):614-20.

 

Lyytinen H, Pukkala E, Ylikorkala O. Breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women using estrogen-only therapy. Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Dec;108(6):1354-60.

 

Wood CE, Register TC, Lees CJ, et al. Effects of estradiol with micronized progesterone or medroxyprogesterone acetate on risk markers for breast cancer in postmenopausal monkeys. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2007 Jan;101(2):125-34.

 

Foidart JM, Colin C, Denoo X, et al. Estradiol and progesterone regulate the proliferation of human breast epithelial cells. Fertil Steril. 1998 May;69(5):963-9.

 

Fournier A, Berrino F, Riboli E, et al. Breast cancer risk in relation to different types of hormone replacement therapy in the E3N-EPIC cohort. Int J Cancer. 2005 Apr 10;114(3):448-54.

 

de Lignieres B. Endometrial hyperplasia. Risks, recognition and the search for a safe hormone replacement regimen. J Reprod Med. 1999 Feb;44(2 Suppl):191-6.

 

Vashisht A, Wadsworth F, Carey A, et al. A study to look at hormonal absorption of progesterone cream used in conjunction with transdermal estrogen. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2005 Aug;21(2):101-5.

 

Calle EE, Miracle-McMahill HL, Thun MJ, Heath CW Jr. Estrogen replacement therapy and risk of fatal colon cancer in a prospective cohort of postmenopausal women. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1995 Apr 5;87(7):517-23.

 

Kaaks R, Berrino F, Key T, et al. Serum sex steroids in premenopausal women and breast cancer risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005 May 18;97(10):755-65.

 

Micheli A, Muti P, Secreto G, et al. Endogenous sex hormones and subsequent breast cancer in premenopausal women. Int J Cancer. 2004 Nov 1;112(2):312-8.

 

Chlebowski RT, Kuller LH, Prentice RL, et al. Breast cancer after use of estrogen plus progestin in postmenopausal women. N Engl J Med. 2009 Feb 5;360(6):573-87.

 

Stefanick ML, Anderson GL, Margolis KL, et al. Effects of conjugated equine estrogens on breast cancer and mammography screening in postmenopausal women with hysterectomy. JAMA. 2006 Apr 12;295(14):1647-57.

 

L'hermite M, Simoncini T, Fuller S, Genazzani AR. Could transdermal estradiol + progesterone be a safer postmenopausal HRT? A review. Maturitas. 2008 Jul- Aug;60(3-4):185-201.

 

Kaunitz AM. HT and breast cancer: does the type of progestin matter? OBG Management. 2007 June;19(6):31-35.

 

Barbieri RL. More data on hormone therapy risks arrive to reshape practice. OBG Management. 2008 Aug;20(8).

 

Holmberg L, Iversen OE, Rudenstam CM, et al. Increased risk of recurrence after hormone replacement therapy in breast cancer survivors. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008 Apr 2;100(7):475-82.

 

Fournier A, Berrino F, Clavel-Chapelon F. Unequal risks for breast cancer associated with different hormone replacement therapies: results from the E3N cohort study. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2008 Jan;107(1):103-11.

 

de Lignieres B, de Vathaire F, Fournier S, et al. Combined hormone replacement therapy and risk of breast cancer in a French cohort study of 3175 women. Climacteric. 2002;5:332-340.

 

Kaaks R, Berrino F, Key T, et al. Serum sex steroids in premenopausal women and breast cancer risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005 May 18;97(10):755-65.

 

Mauvais-Jarvis P, Kuttenn F, Gompel A. Antiestrogen action of progesterone in breast tissue. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 1986;8(3):179-88.

 

Chang KJ, Lee TT, Linares-Cruz G, Fournier S, de Ligniéres B. Influences of percutaneous administration of estradiol and progesterone on human breast epithelial cell cycle in vivo. Fertil Steril. 1995 Apr;63(4):785-91.

 

Hughes S. Endocrinologist association encourages hrt in younger women. Heartwire. 2008 Jan 7.

 

Formby B, Wiley TS. Bcl-2, survivin and variant CD44 v7-v10 are downregulated and p53 is upregulated in breast cancer cells by progesterone: inhibition of cell growth and induction of apoptosis. Mol Cell Biochem. 1999 Dec;202(1-2):53-61.

 

Moe BG, Vereide AB, Orbo A, Sager G. High concentrations of progesterone and mifepristone mutually reinforce cell cycle retardation and induction of apoptosis. Anticancer Res. 2009 Apr;29(4):1053-8.

 

Wang H, Zhou L, Gupta A, Vethanayagam RR, et al. Regulation of BCRP/ABCG2 expression by progesterone and 17beta-estradiol in human placental BeWo cells. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006 May;290(5):E798-807.

 

Yu S, Lee M, Shin S, Park J. Apoptosis induced by progesterone in human ovarian cancer cell line SNU-840. J Cell Biochem. 2001;82(3):445-51.

 

Cleary MP, Grossmann ME. Minireview: Obesity and breast cancer: the estrogen connection. Endocrinology. 2009 Jun;150(6):2537-42.

 

Eisen A, Lubinski J, Gronwald J, et al. Hormone Therapy and the Risk of Breast Cancer in BRCA1 Mutation Carriers. JNCI J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008;100(19):1361- 1367.

 

Testosterone & Breast Cancer

 

Radosh L. Drug treatments for polycystic ovary syndrome. Am Fam Physician. 2009 Apr 15;79(8):671-6.

 

Secreto G, Venturelli E, Meneghini E, et al. Testosterone and biological characteristics of breast cancers in postmenopausal women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009 Nov;18(11):2942-8.

 

Schneider ME. Metformin regimen found to quell acne in polycystic ovary syndrome. Skin & Allergy News. 2007 October 1.

 

Somboonporn W, Davis SR, et al. Testosterone effects on the breast: implications for testosterone therapy for women. Endocr Rev. 2004 Jun;25(3):374-88.

 

Panzer C, Guay A. Testosterone replacement therapy in naturally and surgically menopausal women. J Sex Med. 2009 Jan;6(1):8-18.

 

Dimitrakakis C, Zhou J, Bondy CA. Androgens and mammary growth and neoplasia. Fertil Steril. 2002 Apr;77 Suppl 4:S26-33.

 

Burgess HE, Shousha S. An immunohistochemical study of the long-term effects of androgen administration on female-to-male transsexual breast: a comparison with normal female breast and male breast showing gynaecomastia. J Pathol. 1993 May;170(1):37-43.

 

Christgau S, Tankó LB, Cloos PA, et al. Suppression of elevated cartilage turnover in postmenopausal women and in ovariectomized rats by estrogen and a selective estrogen-receptor modulator (SERM). Menopause. 2004 Sep-Oct;11(5):508-18.

 

Hofling M, Hirschberg AL, Skoog L, et al. Testosterone inhibits estrogen/progestogeninduced breast cell proliferation in postmenopausal women. Menopause. 2007 Mar- Apr;14(2):183-90.

 

Shufelt CL, Braunstein GD. Testosterone and the breast. Menopause Int. 2008 Sep;14(3):117-22.

 

Davis SR, Hirschberg AL, Wagner LK, et al. The effect of transdermal testosterone on mammographic density in postmenopausal women not receiving systemic estrogen therapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Dec;94(12):4907-13.

 

Key T, Appleby P, Barnes I, et al. Endogenous sex hormones and breast cancer in postmenopausal women: reanalysis of nine prospective studies. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002 Apr 17;94(8):606-616.

 

Lapointe J, Fournier A, Richard V, Labrie C. Androgens down-regulate bcl-2 protooncogene expression in ZR-75-1 human breast cancer cells. Endocrinology. 1999 Jan;140(1):416-21.

 

Zhou J, Ng S, Adesanya-Famuiya O, Anderson K, Bondy CA. Testosterone inhibits estrogen-induced mammary epithelial proliferation and suppresses estrogen receptor expression. FASEB J. 2000 Sep;14(12):1725-30.

 

Ortmann J, Prifti S, Bohlmann MK, et al. Testosterone and 5 alphadihydrotestosterone inhibit in vitro growth of human breast cancer cell lines. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2002 Apr;16(2):113-20.

 

Dimitrakakis C, Zhou J, Wang J, et al. A physiologic role for testosterone in limiting estrogenic stimulation of the breast. Menopause. 2003 Jul-Aug;10(4):292-8.

 

Gooren L. Testosterone supplementation: why and for whom? Aging Male. 2003 Sep;6(3):184-99.

 

Guidozzi F, Daponte A. Estrogen replacement therapy for ovarian carcinoma survivors: A randomized controlled trial. Cancer. 1999 Sep 15;86(6):1013-8.

 

Bu SZ, Yin DL, Ren XH, et al. Progesterone induces apoptosis and up-regulation of p53 expression in human ovarian carcinoma cell lines. Cancer. 1997 May 15;79(10):1944-50.

 

Sainz RM, Mayo JC, Tan DX, et al. Melatonin reduces prostate cancer cell growth leading to neuroendocrine differentiation via a receptor and PKA independent mechanism. Prostate. 2005 Apr 1;63(1):29-43.

 

Schernhammer ES, Berrino F, Krogh V, et al. Urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels and risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008 Jun 18;100(12):898-905.

 

Durna EM, Wren BG, Heller GZ, et al. Hormone replacement therapy after a diagnosis of breast cancer: cancer recurrence and mortality. Med J Aust. 2002 Oct 7;177(7):347-51.

 

DiSaia PJ, Brewster WR, Ziogas A, Anton-Culver H. Breast cancer survival and hormone replacement therapy: a cohort analysis. Am J Clin Oncol. 2000 Dec;23(6):541-545.

 

Gramling R, Eaton CB, Rothman KJ, et al. Hormone Replacement Therapy, Family History, and Breast Cancer Risk Among Postmenopausal Women. Epidemiology. 2009 Sep;20(5):752-756.

 

Eisen A, Lubinski J, Gronwald J, et al. Hormone therapy and the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008 Oct 1;100(19):1361-1367.

 

Chustecka Z. Exercise Reduces Risk for Premature Death From Cancer. Medscape. 2009 Aug 3. Accessed on February 20, 2013 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/706533

 

Splete H. High BMI found to raise risk for most cancers. OBGYN News. 2008 Mar:19. Worcester S. Young, healthy HRT users at low risk for CV event. Family Practice News. 2003 Jun 1. 33:11

 

Franklin BA, Shephard RJ. Avoiding Repeat Cardiac Events: The ABCDESs of Tertiary Prevention. Phys Sportsmed. 2000 Sep;28(9):31-58.

 

Recent rheumatology research results reported: American College of Rheumatology highlights current noteworthy studies. J of Muscoloskeletal Med. 2004 Aug 1.

 

Progesterone Optimization

 

Toh S, Hernández-Díaz S, Logan R, et al. Coronary heart disease in postmenopausal recipients of estrogen plus progestin therapy: does the increased risk ever disappear? A randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2010 Feb 16;152(4):211-7.

 

Grodstein F, Stampfer MJ. Estrogen for women at varying risk of coronary disease. Maturitas. 1998 Sep 20;30(1):19-26.

Gerhard M, Walsh BW, Tawakol A, et al. Estradiol therapy combined with progesterone and endothelium-dependent vasodilation in postmenopausal women. Circulation. 1998 Sep 22;98(12):1158-63.

 

1. Kujala UM, Sarna S, Kaprio J, et al. Natural selection to sports, later physical activity habits, and coronary heart disease. Br J Sports Med. 2000 Dec;34(6):445-9.

 

2. Davison KK, Birch LL. Weight status, parent reaction, and self-concept in fiveyear- old girls. Pediatrics. 2001 Jan;107(1):46-53.

 

3. Grodstein F, Manson JE, Colditz GA, et al. A prospective, observational study of postmenopausal hormone therapy and primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Ann Intern Med. 2000 Dec 19;133(12):933-41.

 

Johnson K. Oral contraceptives found protective against cardiovascular disease. Family Practice News. 2005 Aug 1.

Siris ES, Miller PD, Barrett-Connor E, et al. Identification and fracture outcomes of undiagnosed low bone mineral density in postmenopausal women: results from the National Osteoporosis Risk Assessment. JAMA. 2001 Dec 12;286(22):2815-22.

 

Johnson K. ERT boosts cognitive function no matter the age. (unable to find full reference)

 

The Writing Group for the PEPI Trial. Effects of estrogen or estrogen/progestin regimens on heart disease risk factors in postmenopausal women. The Postmenopausal Estrogen/Progestin Interventions (PEPI) Trial. JAMA. 1995 Jan 18;273(3):199-208.

 

Henderson VW, Benke KS, Green RC, et al. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and Alzheimer's disease risk: interaction with age. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2005 Jan;76(1):103-5.

 

Harman SM, Vittinghoff E, Brinton EA, et al. Timing and duration of menopausal hormone treatment may affect cardiovascular outcomes. Am J Med. 2011 Mar;124(3):199-205.

 

Cooper AJ, White MI. Use of Pro-Gest cream in postmenopausal women. The Lancet. 1998 Sept 12;352:905-906.

 

Wren BG, McFarland K, Edwards L. Micronised transdermal progesterone and endometrial response. Lancet. 1999 Oct 23;354(9188):1447-8.

 

Harman SM, Vittinghoff E, Brinton EA, et al. Timing and duration of menopausal hormone treatment may affect cardiovascular outcomes. Am J Med. 2011 Mar;124(3):199-205.

Progesterone Optimization

 

Toh S, Hernández-Díaz S, Logan R, et al. Coronary heart disease in postmenopausal recipients of estrogen plus progestin therapy: does the increased risk ever disappear? A randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2010 Feb 16;152(4):211-7.

 

Pinkerton JV. Bioidentical hormones: What you (and your patient) need to know. The J of Fam Practice. 2009 Jan;21(1).

 

Tai PL. Avoid Common Pitfalls, Mistakes, and 87% Failures of Anti Aging Saliva Hormone Testing, The America Academy of Anti Aging Medicine 15th Annual International Congress on Anti aging Medicine & Regenerative Biomedical Technologies, Orlando, Florida, April 26, 2007.

 

Boothby LA, Doering PL, Kipersztok S. Bioidentical hormone therapy: a review. Menopause. 2004 May-Jun;11(3):356-67.

 

Ilyia ER, McLure D, Farhat MY. Long- Term Effects of Topical Progesterone Cream Application: A Case Study. Inter J of Pharmaceutical Compounding. June 1998. Gavrilova N, Lindau ST. Salivary sex hormone measurement in a national,

population-based study of older adults. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2009 Nov;64:i94-105.

 

Arregger AL, Contreras LN, Tumilasci OR, et al. Salivary testosterone: a reliable approach to the diagnosis of male hypogonadism. Clin Endocrinol. 2007 Nov;67(5):656-62.

 

Stanczyk FZ, Paulson RJ, Roy S. Percutaneous administration of progesterone: blood levels and endometrial protection. Menopause. 2005 Mar;12(2):232-7.

 

Vashisht A, Wadsworth F, Carey A, Carey B, Studd J. A study to look at hormonal absorption of progesterone cream used in conjunction with transdermal estrogen. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2005 Aug;21(2):101-5.

 

MacFarland SA. Use of Pro-Gest cream in postmenopausal women. The Lancet. 1998 Sept 12;352:905.

 

Taylor-Robinson D, Ong G, Thomas BJ, Rose ML, Yacoub MH. Chlamydia pneumoniae in vascular tissues from heart-transplant donors. Lancet. 1998 Apr 25;351(9111):1255.

 

Wren BG, McFarland K, Edwards L. Micronised transdermal progesterone and endometrial response. Lancet. 1999 Oct 23;354(9188):1447-8.

 

Peck JD, Hulka BS, Poole C, et al. Steroid hormone levels during pregnancy and incidence of maternal breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2002 Apr;11(4):361-8.

 

Lewis JG, McGill H, Patton VM, Elder PA. Caution on the use of saliva measurements to monitor absorption of progesterone from transdermal creams in postmenopausal women. Maturitas. 2002 Jan 30;41(1):1-6.

 

de Lignières B. Effects of progestogens on the postmenopausal breast. Climacteric. 2002 Sep;5(3):229-35.

 

Formby B, Wiley TS. Bcl-2, survivin and variant CD44 v7-v10 are downregulated and p53 is upregulated in breast cancer cells by progesterone: inhibition of cell growth and induction of apoptosis. Mol Cell Biochem. 1999 Dec;202(1-2):53-61.

 

McCrohon JA, Nakhla S, Jessup W, et al. Estrogen and progesterone reduce lipid accumulation in human monocyte-derived macrophages: a sex-specific effect. Circulation. 1999 Dec 7;100(23):2319-25.

 

Chang KJ, Lee TT, Linares-Cruz G, Fournier S, de Ligniéres B. Influences of percutaneous administration of estradiol and progesterone on human breast epithelial cell cycle in vivo. Fertil Steril. 1995 Apr;63(4):785-91.

 

Blake EJ, Norris PM, Dorfman SF, et al. Single and multidose pharmacokinetic study of a vaginal micronized progesterone insert (Endometrin) compared with vaginal gel in healthy reproductive-aged female subjects. Fertil Steril. 2010 Sep;94(4):1296- 301.

 

Schumacher M, Guennoun R, Ghoumari A, et al. Novel perspectives for progesterone in hormone replacement therapy, with special reference to the nervous system. Endocr Rev. 2007 Jun;28(4):387-439.

 

Darbinian JA, Ferrara AM, Van Den Eeden SK, et al. Glycemic status and risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008 Mar;17(3):628-35.

 

Rhoden EL, Morgentaler A. Risks of Testosterone-Replacement Therapy and Recommendations for Monitoring. N Engl J Med. 2004;350(5):482-492.

Testosterone Administration

 

Vermeulen A. Androgen replacement therapy in the aging male--a critical evaluation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Jun;86(6):2380-90.

 

Hajjar RR, Kaiser FE, Morley JE. Outcomes of long-term testosterone replacement in older hypogonadal males: a retrospective analysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997 Nov;82(11):3793-6.

 

Fairbanks VF. What to include in the workup of an elevated hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit? (Hematology Q&A). Consultant. 2003 Jun 1.

 

Thompson PD, Cullinane EM, Sady SP, et al. Contrasting effects of testosterone and stanozolol on serum lipoprotein levels. JAMA. 1989 Feb 24;261(8):1165-8.

Darbinian JA, Ferrara AM, Van Den Eeden SK, et al. Glycemic status and risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008 Mar;17(3):628-35.

 

Kapoor D, Goodwin E, Channer KS, Jones TH. Testosterone replacement therapy improves insulin resistance, glycaemic control, visceral adiposity and hypercholesterolaemia in hypogonadal men with type 2 diabetes. Eur J Endocrinol. 2006 Jun;154(6):899-906.

 

Gooren L. The role of testosterone in erectile function and dysfunction. J of Men's Health & Gender. 2006 Sept;3(3):292-298.

 

Al-Futaisi AM, Al-Zakwani IS, Almahrezi AM, Morris D. Subcutaneous administration of testosterone. A pilot study report. Saudi Med J. 2006 Dec;27(12):1843-6.

 

Tsujimura A, Matsumiya K, Takao T, et al. Treatment with human chorionic gonadotropin for PADAM: a preliminary report. Aging Male. 2005 Sep-Dec;8(3-

 

4):175-9.

Shabsigh A, Kang Y, Shabsign R, et al. Clomiphene citrate effects on testosterone/estrogen ratio in male hypogonadism. J Sex Med. 2005 Sep;2(5):716- 21.

 

Taylor F, Levine L. Clomiphene citrate and testosterone gel replacement therapy for male hypogonadism: efficacy and treatment cost. J Sex Med. 2010 Jan;7(1 Pt 1):269-76.

 

Potenza M, Shimshi M. Male hypogonadism: The unrecognized cardiovascular risk factor. J Clin Lipidol. 2008 Apr;2(2):71-8.

 

Hanafy HM. Testosterone therapy and obstructive sleep apnea: is there a real connection? J Sex Med. 2007 Sep;4(5):1241-6.

 

Gascón A, Belvis JJ, Berisa F, et al. Nandrolone decanoate is a good alternative for the treatment of anemia in elderly male patients on hemodialysis. Geriatr Nephrol Urol. 1999;9(2):67-72.

 

Santora LJ, Marin J, Vangrow J, et al. Coronary calcification in body builders using anabolic steroids. Prev Cardiol. 2006 Fall;9(4):198-201.

 

Low Testosterone in a Man With Prostate Cancer: What Are His Options? Consultant Live. 2006 Dec 31. Accessed on February 20, 2013 from http://www.consultantlive.com/display/article/10162/38484

 

Morgentaler A. A 66-Year-Old Man With Sexual Dysfunction. JAMA. 2004;291(24):2994-3003.

 

Hedrick RE, Ackerman RT, Koltun WD, et al. Transdermal estradiol gel 0.1% for the treatment of vasomotorsymptoms in postmenopausal women. Menopause. 2009 Jan- Feb;16(1):132-40.

 

DHEA Update

 

Pepping J. DHEA: dehydroepiandrosterone. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2000 Nov 15;57(22):2048-50, 2053-4, 2056.

Thyroid & CVD vs. Osteoporosis

Feld S, Dickey RA. An Association Between Varying Degrees of Hypothyroidism and Hypercholesterolemia in Women: The Thyroid-Cholesterol Connection. Prev Cardiol. 2001 Autumn;4(4):179-182.

 

Ojamaa K. Thyroid Hormone Therapy of Cardiovascular Disease. CVR & R. 2002;23:20-26.

 

Garrison RL, Breeding PC. A metabolic basis for fibromyalgia and its related disorders: the possible role of resistance to thyroid hormone. Med Hypotheses. 2003 Aug;61(2):182-9.

 

Teitelbaum J. More Than Meets The Eye. Healthy Aging. 2(5):75-78. Accessed on February 20, 2013 from http://healthy-aging.advanceweb.com/article/more-thanmeets-the-eye-2.aspx

 

Shomon M. The thyroid treatment/osteoporosis controversy: Does thyroid treatment contribute to loss of bone density? Thyroid Info. Accessed on February 20, 2013 from http://www.thyroid-info.com/articles/osteoporosis.htm

 

Thomasson WA. WCO: Thyroid Supplementation Does Not Increase Osteoporosis Risk. Doctor's Guide. 2000 Jun 17. Accessed on February 20, 2013 from http://www.pslgroup.com/dg/1d62e2.htm

 

De Rosa G, Testa A, Maussier ML, et al. A slightly suppressive dose of L-thyroxine does not affect bone turnover and bone mineral density in pre- and postmenopausal women with nontoxic goitre. Horm Metab Res. 1995 Nov;27(11):503-7.

 

Stall GM, Harris S, Sokoll LJ, Dawson-Hughes B. Accelerated bone loss in hypothyroid patients overtreated with L-thyroxine. Ann Intern Med. 1990 Aug 15;113(4):265-9.

 

Franklyn JA, Betteridge J, Daykin J, et al. Long-term thyroxine treatment and bone mineral density. Lancet. 1992 Jul 4;340(8810):9-13.

 

Schneider DL, Barrett-Connor EL, Morton DJ. Thyroid hormone use and bone mineral density in elderly men. Arch Intern Med. 1995 Oct 9;155(18):2005-7.

 

Kung AW, Yeung SS. Prevention of bone loss induced by thyroxine suppressive therapy in postmenopausal women: the effect of calcium and calcitonin. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1996 Mar;81(3):1232-6.

 

Nuzzo V, Lupoli G, Esposito Del Puente A, et al. Bone mineral density in premenopausal women receiving levothyroxine suppressive therapy. Gynecol Endocrinol. 1998 Oct;12(5):333-7.

 

Fujiyama K, Kiriyama T, Ito M, et al. Suppressive doses of thyroxine do not accelerate age-related bone loss in late postmenopausal women. Thyroid. 1995 Feb;5(1):13-7.

 

Sheppard MC, Holder R, Franklyn JA. Levothyroxine treatment and occurrence of fracture of the hip. Arch Intern Med. 2002 Feb 11;162(3):338-43.

 

Greenspan SL, Greenspan FS. The effect of thyroid hormone on skeletal integrity. Ann Intern Med. 1999 May 4;130(9):750-8.

 

Shomon MJ, Cline W. Is Thyroid Medication Going to Give You Osteoporosis? Experts Evaluate the Risks. About.com. 2004 Mar 11. Accessed February 20, 2013 from http://thyroid.about.com/cs/osteoporosis/a/osteoporosis.htm

 

Van Den Eeden SK, Barzilay JI, Ettinger B, Minkoff J. Thyroid hormone use and the risk of hip fracture in women > or = 65 years: a case-control study. J Womens Health. 2003 Jan-Feb;12(1):27-31.

LRA by ELISA/ACT clinical update #16: Autoimmune thyroiditis:1-6.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Joseph J Eckburg, MD, PhD

7117 Crimson Ridge Dr, Ste 3, Rockford, IL 61107

p: 815-316-8700
f: 310-356-4935
jjeofficestaff@gmail.com
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© 2016 by Joseph J Eckburg

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